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DETERMINE YOUR CAREER PATH: A CAREER GUIDE FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS IN TANZANIA

ABOUT THE AUTHOR AND THE BOOK

The Author



The author, Muthe Mathias Mwampashi, was born on 1st July, 1990 in Rungwa A village, Itumba ward, Ileje district, Songwe region, Tanzania. He attended the following Primary Schools:
Itumba (1998 – 2001), Mbata (2001 – 2003), Chemchem (2003 – 2004) and Luckewille (2004). He studied at Mbalizi Secondary School,Tanzania (2006 – 2009); Sangu High School, Tanzania (2010 – 2012).
He holds the following degrees:
Bachelor of Science in Actuarial Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (2012 – 2015); Masters of Science in Mathematical Science, African Institute for Mathematical Science, Tanzania (2015 – 2016); Masters of Science in Mathematical Modeling, University of Dar es Salaam,(2016 – 2017). He is currently (April, 2020) studying for a PhD in Quantitative
Finance at the University of Technology, Sydney, Australia.
He holds the following Awards:
Best student in Mathematics, Economics, and Geography, awarded by Sangu High School (2012); AIMS Next Einstein Initiative Structured Masters Full Scholarship, awarded by the Pan- African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (2015); An outstanding student in Mathematical Sciences, awarded by the Pan-African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (2016); Research Grant, by the Pan-African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (2016); Awarded the UTS International Research Scholarship (UTS IRS) by the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Australia, Awarded the UTS President’s scholarship (UTSP) by the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Australia.

The Book


The majority of students in secondary schools and colleges have been struggling to plan for their career prospects. This is because little/no efforts have been directed towards enhancing awareness to the students, teachers, and parents about several career options which are available in Tanzania.

This book is designed to shed light to the students, parents, and teachers regarding various degree programs available in Tanzania as well as the respective career prospects. Further more, the book is written to enable parents and those in the education industry to provide career guidance to the students more effectively and efficiently. It is expected that students
will be using the book continuously to plan for their career paths.

On the other hand, as universities in Tanzania continue to increase, today’s job market is becoming increasingly competitive for the graduates. As the years go by, the job industry will become even more competitive, and students in both secondary schools and colleges need to be well prepared and equipped to withstand the competition.

One of the challenge that has been triggering the inability of graduates to withstand the competition is poor career preparations for the younger generation. In fact, secondary schools, colleges, and those leading the education industry have devoted little/no effort toward setting effective strategies to help students plan for their future careers. The consequence of
this has been a poor choice of degree programs. Experience shows that the majority of the graduates and current students have been affected by this challenge in one way or another.

In the same vein, most of them realize their mistake when it is too late and there is no point for them to turn around. We account this challenge to a lack of a well-contented career book and career guidance programs to enable students to familiarize themselves with varieties of opportunities available in Tanzania. This book is the solution.

The list of universities/colleges and courses provided in this book is in no way exhaustive. It is only illustrative and is expected to generate enough curiosity in the students, teachers, and parents to want to inquire and explore further on the inter alia scope, possibilities, and avenues for each of these courses and/or while looking for other options/areas that go beyond
these courses. It’s also worth mentioning that universities/colleges change (remove or add) courses from time to time and therefore readers are encouraged to keep themselves updated. Efforts will, however, be made to update the contents of the book to the extent possible.

The book is designed to prepare the next generation of workers and entrepreneurs. It provides clear descriptions of a range of educational options available in higher learning institutions, career prospects, and entry qualifications. Moreover, it briefly highlights how to select the best degree program, criteria for choosing a university, and the future of careers and jobs.

We expect that the book will be used on a continuous basis to enable students, teachers, parents and those in the education industry to prepare/help students prepare for the future career. Our advice is, therefore, students should not wait until they are about to apply for
university degree programs, but gradually going through the book, familiarize themselves and effectively research to identify the programs that suit them most.

Chapter 20, which is about ”Classification of Degree Programs based on subject combinations”, will guide students in Forms IV on which subject combination to make and consequently their future careers. This chapter must be read by the students in Form IV and even lower forms.

This book should be owned and often used by Students in Secondary Schools and Colleges and their teachers/tutors, parents and teachers so that they can guide their students as to the best choices of degree programs.

INTRODUCTION


”Do what you love to do and give it your very best. Whether it’s business or baseball, or the theater, or any field. If you don’t love what you’re doing and you can’t give it your best, get out of it. Life is too short. You’ll be an old man before you know it.”Alfonso Ramon Lopez


In recent years Tanzania has witnessed a dramatic introduction and expansion of the existing higher learning institutions. According to the Tanzania Commission for Universities, more than seventy (70) higher learning institutions were approved to admit students for the 2019/2020 academic year. This number is likely to increase in the future. Further, it is estimated that, in total, these institutions have the capacity to produce around 900,000 graduates each year. Since it is the expectation of all countries to see that the general population is well knowledgeable, the increase in the number of graduates is a promising achievement for an emerging economy like Tanzania. The emergence of varieties of degree programs offered by these universities/colleges contributes to creating experts required in various sectors of the economy. It is with no doubt, therefore, the contribution of the higher learning institutions to economic growth is of great significance.

Notwithstanding these achievements, the existing job market has not been sufficient enough to accommodate thousands of graduates who enter the job market each year. The statistics indicate that, out 900, 000 graduates who enter the job markets, only 50,000 – 60,000 get absorbed. The limited number of employment opportunities available in both the public and
private sectors are among the primary factor accounting for this challenge. Several criticisms have also been raised against the education system in the higher learning institutions, specifically, the inability to produce graduates with appropriate employ-ability skills, such as critical and creative thinking, communication skills as well as self-awareness and the capacity
for introspection and empathy. Furthermore, many degree programs have drifted too far into theory and have relatively little relevance for practice. Some of the degree programs have also failed to cope with the changing nature of the job market, where jobs are becoming more technologically dependent.

In this book, however, I will focus on the other factor, which to the best of my knowledge has not been given much attention. In particular, failure of the students to plan for their career
http://www.tcu.go.tz/. Accessed December 2019
https://www.thecitizen.co.tz/magazine/success/Life-after-university–What-s-next-for-the-newgraduates-/
1843788-4225020-woebqnz/index.html
. Accessed Dember 2019

prospects or equipped for the future while in lower education levels. In fact, students are not given enough support and direction to help them prepare and plan for their future careers. In line with this, there are no relevant career programs that are offered to the students in both primary and secondary schools. For instance, the government, parents, and teachers have been encouraging students to pursue subjects combinations that are science-based without showing or directing them on the possible specific paths they can take in the future. The same challenge applies for those who are pursuing arts and business subjects.

The few years in the higher learning industry has been enough for me to observe how serious this challenge is. I have come across a large number of students who had no idea or prior information on the degree programs they are currently enrolled in. I bet there are thousands of students in secondary schools and colleges who are expecting to join the higher learning institutions and will be trapped in the same chain of ignorance. The majority of students, their parents, and even teachers are only aware of the basic programs. If you try to ask an advanced level student which program he/she wishes to pursue in the university, the answer will probably be the obvious such as something related to health (specifically, medicine), engineering, law, education, or something related to business. These are general careers known by many, albeit the specific specializations which one will end on pursuing are still not familiar to the majority.

Unfortunately, their mind sees the light when it is too late.
To give you vivid examples of this challenge, I have selected a few questions from Jamii forum (a social media), which were asked by students when they were about to submit their applications for various degree programs:

Example 0.1
• Post title: renewable energy engineering
wadau UDOM wanategemea kuanzisha course ya renewable energy engineering mwaka huu kwa ngazi ya degree na diploma,hivi soko lake kwa ujumla? na sehemu gan sana kuajiriwa?
• Post title: Faculty nzuri IPI wenyeji wa SUA ambayo ni marketable hata ajira yake rahisi kuipata?? Wadau Coz IP nzuru ya degree kusomea hapo SUA??
Post title: Mnaofahamu hii kitu fungukeni kama ufahamu tuliac
Bachelor of science general inahusiana na mambo gani?
Post title: Naomba kufahamishwa kuhusu Agriculture Economics And Agri Businessd
Habari Zenu Wapendwa…
Naomben Mnisaidie Kwa Anaefaham Hyo Coz Hapo Juu Anifahamishe About Merits, demerits And Future Outlook (ntafanya Kaz Gan Nkimaliza Na Upatkanaji Wa Ajira) Yke Ikoje Pia Mxul Wake Uko Vp Hpo SUA Na Mambo Mengne Mnayofaham Kuhusu Hiyo Facult Kawa Vle Ushauri Kama Ni Nzur Au Vp„!
Naomba Msaada Wenu Jaman


This book is a solution to these challenges. It is authored for the purpose of shedding light on the students so that they can plan for their future careers. It is also aimed at enabling those in the education industry, teachers, and parents to provide proper guidance to the students on how they can define their career paths. The book is one of its kind since it covers all the degree programs offered by Tanzanian’s universities. The book will guide you on how you can choose the right career/degree program, and how you can choose the university that will make you achieve your career goals. In the subsequent chapters, you will be able to understand the scope of these programs as well as the corresponding employment and entrepreneurship
opportunities.

The book is designed for the students and teachers in both ordinary and advanced level secondary schools. Given the fact that my main focus is to enable students to plan for their career paths as early as possible, it is expected that students will start reading this book way before the completion of their secondary studies. It is strongly advised that one should
not wait until the completion of his/her advanced level studies or the time for universities’ applications. Instead, preparation should start during the commencement of one’s studies or earlier than that. The book will easy your research on a number of possible degree programs. Commit yourself to this kind of research, as it’ll make you more confident in your choice of
degree and the career paths at large.

Before choosing a particular degree program take time to understand it and more important don’t consider the availability of employment opportunities as the only or key criteria for your choice. Things may turn out to be different from your expectations, the future is uncertain.
Devote your efforts to explore your career options and see where your degree could take you. Find something that you are more interested in and give it most of your time. In the career prospect section, I have tried to indicate possible areas where you may possibly work after completing your studies3. However, many employers accept applications from graduates with any degree certificate, so don’t restrict your thinking to the job opportunities given in this book only. In addition to this, I have indicated the possible entrepreneurship opportunities which a graduate may opt after completing a degree program. Sincerely, due to the increasing unemployment rate, students should appreciate and realize the importance
of thinking outside the box and nurtures unconventional talents and skills.
Career prospects is defined in the Collins dictionary as the probability or chance for future success in a profession

Organization of This Book


This book is organized into nineteen chapters. Chapter 2-19 presents all degree programs available in Tanzania. The last chapter, that is chapter 20, presents a summary of all degree programs based on the advanced level subject combinations.

It should be noted that this book is neither the substitute for the universities’ academic prospectus nor the TCU guidebook. Most of the descriptions given in this book are too general allowing you to understand what you are likely to cover in the unit of your interest. The program descriptions are therefore not ”university/program-specific”. You can find more information about the coverage of a specific program for any university from the academic prospectus. Moreover, take your time to read the TCU guide book for the respective academic year to check which program has been added or removed, or which universities are allowed to administer students for that year. This is because changes may occur more often probably even before we get a chance to update this book.

AVAILABILITY OF THE BOOK

This book is available as an eBook on Tanzania Educational Publishers Ltd’s website at a price of TZS 10,000. Clice here to Buy your copy.

Also it is available as Paperback/ Hard-copy at a price of TZS 40,000. Place your order at: tepultd@yahoo.com

OR visit Us On:

Uganda Road, Plot No. 45, Block MDA,   P.O. Box 1222, Bukoba, Tanzani Website: www.tepu.co.tz   E-mail: tepultd@yahoo.com Mob.+255-784-690277/+255-768-023019    

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